The field of technology education over the last twenty or so years has made fundamental changes at both middle and high school levels especially in the United States. Many schools have developed a curriculum that is responsive to the needs of the students and that is distinctive in nature to the characteristics of students in elementary school. The standards of education have improved significantly for most grades in many states and many of them have developed circular frameworks to allow for technology education at the secondary level. However, the requirements for students have also increased. For such cases, there are professional editing services. The greatest challenge in implementing technology education in elementary schools has been the shortage in the number of elementary teachers who can teach technology education and this has remained a monumental problem (Foster, 1997).
Introducing technology to primary school
However, at elementary schools, even though there has not overabundance of curriculum touching on technology due to scarcity of resources, a number of models have been developed in the past twenty years for the implementation of a successful elementary school technology education (ESTE) (Kirkwood, 2000). However, careful examination of the perceived changes in the elementary schools indicates an impressive array of interest in what is regarded as the rubric of change because a number of the changes have been short-lived and failed to realize the intended goal of allowing students to choose what they wanted to do at school. Many subjects still have remained to be compulsory for all students.
Moreover, it is important to note that the introduction of computers, in particular, has made it easier for both teachers and students because there is too much work to be covered in the classroom and as a result, the integration of technology into the regular curriculum has become a tool or an assistant to the teachers and students as well. There are many courses that have tailored to suit the needs of the students to educate themselves through automatic multiple intelligence assessments without necessarily having to go to the classroom (Foster, 1997). Technology has also made it easier to reformat all courses taught in college so that elementary students can learn the basics of any topic they desire.
The use of such technology in elementary school has assisted students to be intrinsically motivated so as to educate themselves and more importantly in self-actualization and this has removed the bureaucratic inefficiencies that used to be in the education system. The quality of education has improved significantly because teachers are now able to upload their courses online for the students to choose the relevant courses offering the highest quality. Kieft (1997) noted that “one survey of exemplary elementary school programs indicated that just about every elementary school teacher at every grade level implemented some type of hands-on activity each day”.
Impact of teachers on technology education
Nevertheless, despite the fundamental developments made in elementary schools in terms of technology, there has been a lack of understanding of how students learn about technology education and other design skills. It is worth noting that technology education does not only involve hands-on activities but there is a need for teachers to involve even the development of technological literacy which should involve the capacity to use, manage, understand, and more importantly to assess the technology for the students to appreciate what they are learning (Kirkwood, 2000). The examination of the ultimate fate of many of these changes reveals that they have been short-lived an indication that the publicized changes in elementary schools have been of limited consequence due to limited resources and lack of qualified teachers who can teach technology education implying that it may not be possible to realize the lasting changes unless some intangible bases of substance are developed.
Printed or e-books
Electronic books or eBooks are digital equivalents of conventional printed books and can be read on personal computers using eBooks readers (Articlesbase). Their history traces back to Project Gutenberg that was initiated by Michael Hart in 1971 as a way to find additional uses of computers to that of computing. As a result, he invented E-text that we now know as eBook and up today the project remains one of the largest and most accessed free eBooks library world over. The invention of the internet in 1974 prompted libraries, universities, and corporations to digitize their resources for easy access by their clients. Corporations such as Amazon.com and Barnes & Noble started developing web pages to serve as virtual platforms and electronic libraries to serve many customers all over the globe. Newspaper, magazine, and journal publishers followed by creating digital resources to cut on publishing costs. Today, more and more reading materials are being published as eBooks and the traditional printed ones digitized (Eisenbraun 1-2).
There are various devices in use to read eBooks including “Barnes & Noble’s Nook, Amazon’s Kindle, and Apple’s iPad” (Costello). Except for the iPad which supports both visual and audio applications, the other two devices support only audio applications. There are various versions of iPad including iBook etc while Amazon has kindle DX and kindle (Detwiler). As more and more media houses are now shifting from printed media to digital media that is published and posted on the internet, reading of eMagazines, eBooks and other e-resources may become an interactive activity. People will read and discuss the content contained in the resources as they do in other online forums such as social networks (Cope & Mason 63).
In conclusion, the use of electronic gadgets and modern technologies in education in the next few years will completely replace the usual forms of education. As more publishers, libraries and educational institutions switch from print to electronic media. In addition, it is already possible to read books via mobile phones, and use educational applications.