They are the ones traditionally classified as “diminutive” (on one hand), and “augmentative” (on the other hand) and “pejorative” suffixes (as a different). But those labels are not meant to be taken as rigid descriptions of the suffixes’ actual purport. In practice, all of them execute multiple functions, to the extent that in many cases, their functions are reciprocally exchanged.
It is overwhelming how often Spanish words develop from expressive suffixes, the considerable number of suffixes themselves, and the great variety of circumstances under which they are used. Therefore, it’s not an issue that can be omitted when approaching real, live Spanish.
The suffixes under discussion can be added to most parts of speech, except for articles, prepositions or conjunctions. All the rest –common or proper nouns, adjectives, verbs, adverbs- can indeed incorporate appreciative suffixes in a wide range of scenarios.
First Type: Augmentative Suffix
In Hispanic-American Spanish, the most common augmentative suffix is presented in two more or less alternate forms: «-ón (masculine), -ona (feminine)” or else “-ote (masc.), -ota (fem.)».
problemón, casona, casota, orejotas, narizota, corazonzote.
grandote, buenote, comodona, elegantón, sabrosón.
arribota (by using duplication as an intensifier, other degrees are attained: “arribotota”, and in a higher level “arribototota”).
It is rather common as well to derive verbal adjectives using the appreciative suffix, thus:
From mandar = mandón
From llorar = llorón
From regañar = regañón, etc.
As for Iberian dialects of Spanish, there is some preference for «-azo, -aza» as the preferred augmentative suffix, and it’s applicable to any noun, i.e. 'caraza’, ‘bocaza’, ‘perrazo', to some adjectives, and even to adverbs, as in ‘muchazo’. This does not mean the other above-mentioned suffixes are not equally used, too.
Note that also many a feminine noun shifts into masculine when the augmentative is added. As a result, words such as the following have surged:
aldaba → aldabón
cuchara → cucharón
pared → paredón
sala → salón
pizarra → pizarrón
botella → botellón
In all instances above, the word is not perceived as an augmentative any longer, but as an autonomous unit in itself.